Overview of Blockchain

November 11, 2022 Maitri Katti
Reading Time: 8 minutes

Introduction to Blockchain:

A blockchain is a shared, distributed database or ledger between computer network nodes. A block chain functions as an electronic database for storing data in digital form. In a blockchain, data is gathered into groups called blocks that each include sets of data. Blocks have specific storage capabilities, and when filled, they are sealed and connected to the block that came before them to create the data chain known as the blockchain. Every additional piece of information that comes after that newly added block is combined into a brand-new block, which is then added to the chain once it is full.

Lets have a look on Key Points about  Blockchains:

  1. A blockchain is a specific kind of shared database that varies from other databases in that it saves data in blocks that are subsequently connected via cryptography.
  2. A new block is created as each new piece of data arrives. The data is chained together in chronological order after the block has been filled with information and is attached to the block before it.
  3. Although other kinds of information may be maintained on a blockchain, a transaction ledger has so far been its most popular usage.
  4. Blockchain is utilized in the context of Bitcoin in a decentralized manner, ensuring that no one user or organization has power but rather that all users collectively maintain control.

How does blockchain work?

The goal of blockchain is to allow digital information to be recorded and distributed, but not edited. In this way, a blockchain is the foundation for immutable ledgers, or records of transactions that cannot be altered, deleted, or destroyed. This is why blockchains are also known as a Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT).

Step 1 – Record the transaction: A blockchain transaction documents how assets are transferred between parties in the network, whether they are tangible or digital.

It is stored as a data block and may contain information like this:

  • Who was involved in the transaction?
  • When did the transaction occur?
  • Where did the transaction occur?
  • Why did the transaction occur?
  • How much of the asset was exchanged?

Step 2 – Gain consensus: A majority of users on the distributed blockchain network must concur that the transaction was recorded as legitimate. The rules of agreement might differ depending on the type of network, but they are usually defined at the beginning of the network.

Step 3 – Link the blocks: Once the participants have reached a consensus, transactions on the blockchain are written into blocks equivalent to the pages of a ledger book. Along with the transactions, a cryptographic hash is also appended to the new block. The hash acts as a chain that links the blocks together. If the contents of the block are intentionally or unintentionally modified, the hash value changes, providing a way to detect data tampering.  Thus, the blocks and chains link securely, and you cannot edit them. Each additional block strengthens the verification of the previous block and therefore the entire blockchain.

Step 4 – Share the ledger: The system distributes the latest copy of the central ledger to all participants.

Why is blockchain important in the current industries?

Blockchain offers an immutable record that is duplicated in practically real-time between a network of business partners. The procedure uses data that would have previously been kept in the business’ enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. It is now accessible through a distributed network of records held by many businesses. Organizations can better understand their consumers thanks to a number of blockchain advantages, especially on the demand side. Applications for both data analytics and artificial intelligence (AI) are well known. When it comes to technological viability, it might also hit a ceiling, yet many companies aim for convenience. It enhances the security and effectiveness of processes and calls for greater endurance and fortitude than rapid financial effects.

The blockchain is a permanent distributed directory that is used to store all value transactions in the technical community. Except for the nodes that make the blockchain superior to conventional data storage systems, the organization owns the whole blockchain. A relatively new form of database for storing transaction information in a decentralized and transparent manner is blockchain technology, sometimes referred to as “distributed ledger technology.” Information can be retrieved in real time since there is no single point of failure thanks to the network of computers known as nodes that manage the database. The sector is appropriately in line with the idea that blockchain technology will have an impact on the market. It enables users to save their unique, never-changing identification papers that no one else can access or view.

What are the types of blockchain networks?

  1. Public blockchain networks: Public blockchains are open to all users and have no access controls. The rights to access, update, and validate the blockchain are shared by all participants. Public blockchains are mostly used by people to trade and mine crypto currencies like Bitcoin, Ethereal, and Lit coin.
  2. Private blockchain networks: Private blockchains, also known as managed blockchains, are governed by a single organization. Who is eligible to join the network and what privileges they have are decided by the authorities. Due to access limitations, private blockchains are only partially decentralized. A private blockchain is exemplified by the digital currency exchange network for businesses known as Ripple.
  3. Hybrid blockchain networks: Blockchains that are hybrids incorporate components from both public and private networks. Along with a public system, businesses can build up private, permission-based systems. They maintain public access to the remaining data while controlling access to some data that is kept on the blockchain in this way. To enable public users to verify if private transactions have been performed, they deploy smart contracts. For instance, hybrid blockchains can allow for public access to digital currency while maintaining the confidentiality of cash held by banks.
  4. Consortium blockchain networks: Blockchain collaboration networks are governed by a collection of institutions.The blockchain is jointly maintained by pre-selected organizations, which also decide on data access privileges. Industry sectors that benefit from shared responsibility and have several entities with similar aims sometimes favor consortium blockchain networks.

What is blockchain technology?

A sophisticated database system called blockchain technology enables transparent information exchange inside a company network. Data is kept in blocks that are connected together in a chain and stored in a blockchain database. Because the end user is unable to delete or amend the chain without the network’s approval, the data remains chronologically consistent. As a result, a permanent or immutable ledger that may be used to monitor orders, payments, accounts, and other transactions can be made using blockchain technology. A common picture of these transactions is made consistent by the system’s built-in features, which also stop illegitimate transaction submissions.

What are the features of blockchain technology?

  1. Decentralization: In the context of blockchain, decentralization refers to the transfer of power and responsibility from a centralized entity (an individual, an organization, or a group) to a dispersed network. Transparency in decentralized blockchain networks helps players build less confidence in one another. These networks also prevent users from interfering with one another in ways that would impair the network’s functionality.
  2. Immutability: Immutability means something cannot be changed or altered. Once someone has added a transaction to the shared ledger, it cannot be changed by another participant. To correct an error in a transaction record, you must add a new transaction, and both transactions are visible to the network.
  3. Consensus: A blockchain system establishes rules about participant consent for recording transactions. You can record new transactions only when the majority of participants in the network give their consent.

How did blockchain technology evolve?

Blockchain technology has its roots in the late 1970s when a computer scientist named Ralph Merkle patented Hash trees or Merkle trees. These trees are a type of computer science structure used to store data by crypto graphically connecting blocks. Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta used Merkle trees to build a system that prevented tampering with document timestamps in the late 1990s. This was the first occurrence in blockchain history.

The technology has continued to evolve over these three generations:

  1. First generation – Bitcoin and other virtual currencies: In 2008, a person or group of people who wish to remain unidentified and go by the moniker “Satoshi Nakamoto” described the present iteration of blockchain technology. In Satoshi’s original design for the Bitcoin blockchain, transactions were recorded in 1 MB blocks of data. Even today, a lot of the characteristics of Bitcoin blockchain systems continue to be fundamental to blockchain technology.
  2. Second generation – smart contracts: A few years after first-generation currencies emerged, developers began to consider blockchain applications beyond crypto currency. For instance, the inventors of Ethereum decided to use blockchain technology in asset transfer transactions. Their significant contribution was the smart contracts feature.
  3. Third generation – the future: As companies discover and implement new applications, blockchain technology continues to evolve and grow. Companies are solving limitations of scale and computation, and potential opportunities are limitless in the ongoing blockchain revolution.


Bitcoin was the first successful blockchain application. The world has now discovered uses for blockchain technology in a number of sectors where the absence of a centralized authority is desirable. In a society that contains both centralized and decentralized models in the future, blockchain technology may be highly complementary. The blockchain is a concept that, like any new technology, initially causes disruption but, over time, may encourage the growth of a bigger ecosystem that combines the traditional way of doing things with the new invention.

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Reading Time: 8 minutes


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