Artificial Neural Networks

September 7, 2022 Maitri Katti
Reading Time: 6 minutes


Definition : Artificial Neural network is a collection of algorithms that aim to identify underlying links in a set of data using a method that imitates how the human brain functions.
Neural networks are systems of neurons that can have an organic or artificial origin in this context. Since neural networks are capable of adapting to changing input, the network can produce an excellent outcome without having to change the output criterion. The artificial intelligence-based idea of neural networks is quickly gaining prominence in the design of trading systems.
Artificial neural networks are a branch of artificial intelligence inspired by biology and modeled after the brain. A computational network based on biological neural networks, which create the structure of the human brain, is what is traditionally referred to as an artificial neural network. Artificial neural networks also feature neurons that are linked to each other in different layers of the network neurons.

Examples on ANNs:

  1. Hop-field Networks: It consists of a single layer which contains one or more fully connected recurrent neurons. The Hop-field network is commonly used for auto-association and optimization tasks.
  2. Multi-layer perception: It generates a set of outputs from a set of inputs. Multilayered Perception is characterized by several layers of input nodes connected as a directed graph between the input and output layers. MLP uses back propagation for training the network.
  3. Boltzmann machine: A stochastic spin-glass model with an external field, or stochastic Ising, is what a Boltzmann machine is. It is a statistical physics method used in a cognitive science setting. It is also known as the stochastic Ising model or the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model with external field.

Components of ANNs:

An input layer, a processing layer, and an output layer make up the three primary parts. Various factors may be used to weight the inputs. There are nodes and interconnections between these nodes in the processing layer, which is concealed from view, that are intended to be comparable to the neurons and synapses in an animal brain.

Roles of ANNs:

These technologies are used by the majority of commercial enterprises and business applications. In addition to speech-to-text transcription, data analysis, handwriting recognition for check processing, weather prediction, and signal processing, their major goal is to handle complicated problems like pattern recognition or facial recognition.

Need of ANNs:

The purpose of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is to imitate the biological nervous system, which transmits information via input signals to a processor in order to produce output signals. Multiple processing units make up ANNs, which use them to learn, spot patterns, and forecast data.
Neural networks are employed in trend detection and the extraction of patterns that are challenging for both computers and people to understand because of their extraordinary capacity to extract meaningful information from imprecise input.

Working of Artificial Neural Networks:

  • An input layer, an output (or target) layer, and a hidden layer are the three layers that make up a basic neural network.
  • The nodes that link the layers together create the “network” of interconnected nodes that is the neural network. In the human brain, a neuron serves as the model for a node.
  • Nodes behave similarly to neurons in that they become active when input or stimulus levels are high enough. As a result of this network-wide activation, the network responds to the stimuli (output).
  • These artificial neurons’ connections function as straightforward synapses that allow signals to be passed from one to the other. From the first input to the last output layer, signals move through many layers while being treated along the way.
  • ANNs are created as a neural network’s hidden layer count rises. Simple neural networks are advanced by ANNs. These layers allow data scientists to create their own deep learning networks, which facilitate machine learning, which teaches a computer to precisely replicate human activities like speech recognition, image recognition, and prediction making.

Basic Structure of ANNs:

  • The concept behind ANNs is based on the premise that by forming the appropriate connections, silicon and wires may be used to simulate the real neurons and dendrites found in the human brain.
  • 86 billion neurons, or nerve cells, make up the human brain. Axons connect them to a million additional cells. Dendrites absorb input from sensory organs as well as stimuli from the outside environment. Electric impulses are produced by these inputs and quickly pass through the neural network. A neuron has the option to either forward the message to another neuron for handling or to stop doing so.
  • ANNs are made up of several nodes that mimic the biological neurons seen in the human brain. The links that connect the neurons allow for interaction between them. The nodes have the ability to process simple operations on input data. The outcome of these operations is transmitted to further neurons. The activation or node value of each node is its output. Each link is associated with weight. ANNs are capable of learning, which takes place by altering weight values.

Types of ANNs:

  1. Feed Forward ANN: Signals can only move in one direction with feed-forward neural networks: from input to output. There are no feedback loops, meaning that the output of each layer has no bearing on that layer itself. Feed-forward networks have the reputation of being simple networks that link inputs and outputs. They play a significant role in pattern recognition. Another term for this kind of organization is top-down or bottom-up.
    The buried layer, the second layer of neurons-like units, receives these units’ weighted outputs simultaneously. The weighted output of the first hidden layer can be used as an input for the second hidden layer, and so on. Despite the possibility of several hidden levels, just one is often used.
  2. Feedback Neural: Signals from feedback networks may go through both local and remote learning loops on the internet. Feedback networks have a high degree of dynamic complexity. Feedback networks are dynamic; until they achieve an equilibrium point, their states are always changing.Until the input changes and a new equilibrium must be reached, it stays at the equilibrium point. Although the phrase can refer to feedback links in single-layer organizations, feedback architectures are also described as interactive or recurrent.
    A model of data production and AI learning for behavioral research is crucial when using a huge database to improve the accuracy of deep neural network algorithms. Generally, when the user’s disease information is provided, clinical data is used. Currently, if the clinical facts are erroneous, the projections’ outcomes will also be incorrect.

Advantages of ANNs:

  1. Store information on the entire network:  Just like in conventional programming, where data is kept on the network rather than in a database. The operation of the entire network is not halted if a few pieces of data vanish from one location.
  2. Ability to work with insufficient knowledge:  The output generated by the data after ANN training may be inadequate or insufficient. The significance of the missing data impacts how poorly the task is performed.
  3. Distributed memory:  Outlining the examples and teaching the network according to the desired output by providing it with those examples are both important for an artificial neural network to be able to learn. The chosen examples have a direct correlation with the network’s development.


Neural network have a lot to offer in the field of computers. They are incredibly adaptable and powerful because they can learn by doing. ANNs are considered as simple mathematical models to enhance existing  data analysis technologies. Although it is not comparable with the power of the human brain, still it is the basic building block of the Artificial intelligence. Additionally, there is no requirement to comprehend the internal workings of a task in order to accomplish it; thus, no need to create an algorithm.

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Reading Time: 6 minutes


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